Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Tuite’s Literary Criticism of Lewis’ The Monk Essay -- Monk

Tuite’s Literary Criticism of Lewis’ The Monk I would like to preface this by saying that one of the things I learned from this exercise is that, just because an article exists in published form, does not necessarily mean that it is a good article. This is the conclusion I reached after plowing, dictionary in hand, through two articles that were, respectively, ridiculously elementary after one hacked through the jargon, and entirely absurd and unsupported. Disheartened, I went searching again, and this time, came up with "Cloistered Closets: Enlightenment Pornography, The Confessional State, Homosexual Persecution and The Monk," by Clara Tuite, and it is this article that I am writing about. Tuite's only fault in this article is perhaps that she tries to tackle too much. (Something else I'm discovering as I try to summarize it.) Essentially, she tries to prove the existence of visible homoerotic elements in The Monk, and their link to antiCatholicism. No small feat. She quotes Coleridge in his review of The Monk as saying, the novel blends "with an irreverent negligence, all that is most awfully true in religion with all that is most ridiculously absurd in superstition" (1). The reason this is problematic for Coleridge, according to Tuite, is that it reveals the inherent hypocrisy in the English Church, that is, that the Church condemns, with superstitious intensity, the rituals and superstitions of the Catholic Church. Coleridge fears, "Lewis' contamination of Protestantism by Catholicism" (2). Since at this time a great deal of the English State/Church depended on the assumption that Catholicism was low and wrong and Protestantism the ultimate right, the parallels draw n between Protestantism and Catholicism by Lewis were ... ...Lewis attempts, through this, to disassociate homosexuality with Catholicism, thereby trying to make a Hated Other, at least hated only once over, not twice (9). This, I thought, was an excellent article. Tuite has some very good points, which explained, at least partially, some of the questions I had as to Lewis' intentions with the homoerotic elements in the novel, which to my mind, he had included, but never really developed. Essentially, Tuite clarified for me why, though Ambrosio commits every other kind of sinful" excess, this is one he leaves untouched. And I think she proves a very valid argument. Works Cited Tuite, Clara. "Cloistered Closets: Enlightenment Pornography, The Confessional Sate, Homosexual Persecution anal The Monk." Romanticism On the Net 8 (November 1997): n. pag. Online. Internet. (4/5/98) Tuite’s Literary Criticism of Lewis’ The Monk Essay -- Monk Tuite’s Literary Criticism of Lewis’ The Monk I would like to preface this by saying that one of the things I learned from this exercise is that, just because an article exists in published form, does not necessarily mean that it is a good article. This is the conclusion I reached after plowing, dictionary in hand, through two articles that were, respectively, ridiculously elementary after one hacked through the jargon, and entirely absurd and unsupported. Disheartened, I went searching again, and this time, came up with "Cloistered Closets: Enlightenment Pornography, The Confessional State, Homosexual Persecution and The Monk," by Clara Tuite, and it is this article that I am writing about. Tuite's only fault in this article is perhaps that she tries to tackle too much. (Something else I'm discovering as I try to summarize it.) Essentially, she tries to prove the existence of visible homoerotic elements in The Monk, and their link to antiCatholicism. No small feat. She quotes Coleridge in his review of The Monk as saying, the novel blends "with an irreverent negligence, all that is most awfully true in religion with all that is most ridiculously absurd in superstition" (1). The reason this is problematic for Coleridge, according to Tuite, is that it reveals the inherent hypocrisy in the English Church, that is, that the Church condemns, with superstitious intensity, the rituals and superstitions of the Catholic Church. Coleridge fears, "Lewis' contamination of Protestantism by Catholicism" (2). Since at this time a great deal of the English State/Church depended on the assumption that Catholicism was low and wrong and Protestantism the ultimate right, the parallels draw n between Protestantism and Catholicism by Lewis were ... ...Lewis attempts, through this, to disassociate homosexuality with Catholicism, thereby trying to make a Hated Other, at least hated only once over, not twice (9). This, I thought, was an excellent article. Tuite has some very good points, which explained, at least partially, some of the questions I had as to Lewis' intentions with the homoerotic elements in the novel, which to my mind, he had included, but never really developed. Essentially, Tuite clarified for me why, though Ambrosio commits every other kind of sinful" excess, this is one he leaves untouched. And I think she proves a very valid argument. Works Cited Tuite, Clara. "Cloistered Closets: Enlightenment Pornography, The Confessional Sate, Homosexual Persecution anal The Monk." Romanticism On the Net 8 (November 1997): n. pag. Online. Internet. (4/5/98)

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Africa: Europe Colonization Through Imperialist Aggression Essay

Africa confronted colonization from Europe through imperialist aggression, diplomatic pressure and military invasion during the late 1800’s and early 1900’s. During this time period, African civilizations put up numerous methods of resistance in an effort to stop the European colonization. These resistances failed and by the 20th century most of Africa was colonized. The Europeans desire to colonize Africa was motivated by economic, political and social elements following the breakdown of slave trading. This led to a frantic struggle to establish different parts of the African continent for trade while the Africans fought free trade. African military fought European colonization through guerrilla warfare because the stateless societies did not have an established military. The use of African military was utilized in more centralized states such as Ethiopia and Zulu. One example of African resistance was brought about by Samory Toure of West Africa who fought the French by the use of military and diplomatic resistance between 1882 and 1898. Most African societies fought aggressively and courageously in an effort to keep control over their country. In the 19th century it was evident that they had lost and their fight and found themselves facing revolutionary changes. The lack of technology was one of the main reasons for their loss. African’s mainly used bows, arrows, spears and some cavalry rifles. It was at this point in time most of Africa was colonized by seven European powers, which had established colonial state systems. These colonial state systems were authoritarian and bureaucratic mainly imposed by force. (Iweriebor, Ehiedu , n.d) Because of the European colonization upon Africa came a syncretism of culture, society and production. Islam and Christianity were introduced to West Africa between the ninth and the tenth century by way of missionaries and trading. Islam was accepted in the 11th century by numerous rulers and has since grown to be a prominent religion in West Africa by becoming incorporated into the laws, cultures and political economy of different regions. Today over 50% and many cities in West Africa are of Muslim including Nigeria and Sierra Leone. Cities such as Mali, Senegal, Mauritania and Gambia are over 90 % Muslim. Christianity in Africa has a shorter history because it was not introduced until Europeans began exploring and colonizing Africa. Christianity was introduced to Africa in the 15th century through the European missionary work and is still being cultivated today by Christians all over the world. The city of Cape Verde is mostly Christian based while the city of Chana is over 60% Christian. While Christianity and Islam beliefs are present within Africa the most common religious practice in Africa falls within the indigenous category. Africans have however combined their pre-colonial beliefs with those of Christianity and Islam thus creating a syncretism of religion. (Exploring Africa, n.d.) The economy in Africa greatly changed from the European colonization. During the colonial period, most European colonizers grew crops strictly to sell them. The economy was based upon exporting raw materials and importing manufactured items. Some examples of the exports would be cotton, oil and minerals while the importing was generally machines, equipment and textiles. In almost every instance of instance of trading, one of the primary trade allies for each African country is a corresponding past colonizer. In addition, there are only a few primary trade partners are with other African countries. Therefore, international trade relations of Africa are focused toward industrialized nations. (Exploring Africa, n.d.) Reference: Iweriebor, Ehiedu (n.d) The Colonization of Africa, retrieved from: Exploring Africa (n.d.) Unit Four: Regional Perspective, Retrieved from:

Monday, September 16, 2019

Organizational metaphor Essay

What is a metaphor? Metaphor (met-uh-fawr, -fer) a figure of speech in which a term or phrase is applied to something to which it is not literally applicable in order to suggest a resemblance. In organizational behaviour, the metaphors help people understand all we need to know about an organization. Gareth Morgan proposed near in 80 ´s, the eight metaphors of organizations to explain the organization problems. The two most important metaphors he proposed, are the organizations as machines and the organizations as brains. The first metaphor that he proposed, allowed us to understand the organizations as machines. Since Descartes the metaphor of the machine has entered the scientific thought. This philosopher say the human body is liked to a later machine. Then the industrial revolution take this philosophy as part of the shift. Later Gareth Morgan sense that organizations are like machines, its means they require high levels of efficiency in the same way as the machines require high levels of efficiency to operate correctly. All organizations require maintenance, to keep them running without difficulty and propitiously, similar to machines, that require maintenance to keep them running productively. Organizations are like machines because when individuals talk to one another about an organization or a machine they communicate using many of the same words to describe the organization or the machine. The second one is organization as an organism. The comparison of the organization with an organization concept from biology, aims to underline the dynamic character of the former, subject to constant change. These changes take on a vital aspect for survival and effectiveness. Consequently, the employees have needs that must be satisfied for them to function well. According to the population ecology view, some organisations depend on resources to survive for which they have to compete with other  organisations. Unlike what we observed in the metaphor of the machine, which highlights here is not a static, controlled, focusing on their physical structure. The third is the organization as a brain. Like the brains, thee organization learn, processes information, create, and have decision making. So talk about the organization as a brain, refers to the fact that organization is made up of a central department. That minds, all decisions are made solely by the central control, and other agencies have the task of carrying out the requests made by the leader or brain. Organizations as a cultures. Culture (kÊÅ'ltÊÆ'É™r) from Latin: cultura, cultivation. When we are talking about culture, we are concerning for the developing models, reproduced in a society model, formed by knowledge, ideologies values and laws. Comparable to the society, the organizations are affected by the rules and ethics codes, appropriated for all situations. These facts were named by Representation and agreement. Organization as autocracy (Political system) In a system that rewards progressing, and punishes the faults; employees are encouraged to hide the failures of the system to protect themselves â€Å"letting sleeping dogs lie† and saying bosses exactly what they want to hear. The only freedom they have is the option to quit and move on. Conflict occurs when there are opposing interests and is probably always present in all organisations. The political view of organisation shows that politics is inevitable in organisations and all organisational activity is based on self-interest. It explodes the myth that organisations are rational, it helps to find ways to overcome the limitations of the notion that organisations are integrated systems, and it gets us to recognise socio-political implications of different organisations and their roles in society. The danger of this view is that it can increase the politicisation of organisations. (anonymous, 2014) Organizations as psychic prisons. Nominalism may refer to a position that denies the existence of universal entities or objects, but accepts that particular objects or entities exist. Plato conceives a man with a dual reality, body and soul, which considers the idea of ​​the material and the immaterial or spiritual as opposites. The model of psychic prison metaphor is used to examine some of the ways organizations and their member’s become trapped by constructions of reality that give an important understanding about the world. The transformative organizations. These organizations emphasizes three different logics: organizations as self-producing systems, as results circular-flows and the product of dialectical movements. Instruments of domination. These kind of organizations used the staff for their own purposes. So  ¿What do we know about the organizational metaphors? (Morgan, 1980). Metaphor plays a symbolic role, for the organizational analysis, just like that, creates a set of meanings essential for the process of human appreciation, social, psychological and cultural. Referencias anonymous. (31 de 08 de 2014). Obtenido de balniev. (31 de 08 de 2014). Obtenido de sarahysigie. (31 de 08 de 2014). Obtenido de

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Iced coffee Essay

The global spread of coffee growing and drinking all started with a curious goat and that’s what legends say. 9th century Ethiopian goat herder Kaldi drank a concoction made from the beans after seeing his energetic goats eat them. The Sufi monks of Yemen in the 15th century were said to drink it as well. During the 17th century when coffee was introduced to Europe, the popularity of cafes followed the same pattern as most coffee houses around the world. It quickly became a venue for people to congregate, exchange views, write poems, plays, and political testaments, conduct business transactions, participate in cultural exchange and often relax with a good book. The popularity of coffee shop had served as a mailing address, because many people were regulars. When you want to go to exchange news, share ideas and get advice, you go to a coffee shop. It has been that way for quite some time. Coffee shops had been places of learning; of making business deals; scientific, literary, political, philosophical, and economic discussions; and even the typical gossip. At the beginning of the nineteenth century nearly all coffee exported on the world market was produced by European colonies. Two-thirds came from French colonies. But despite the fact that the following century would witness what Eric Hobsbawm called â€Å"The Age of Empire† and Lance Davis termed â€Å"high imperialism†, colonialism would cease being important in coffee production. (Though colonies certainly continued to be vital to the production of tea and sugar. ) This occurred precisely at the same time that coffee consumption rose vertiginously in most European colonial powers. Coffee was treated differently than sugar and rubber in the nineteenth century Age of Empire because its low technological demands meant that an independent country richly endowed with the factors of production, Brazil, could begin producing on an unprecedented scale. Cheap fertile land and slave labor allowed coffee prices to plummet after 1820 and remain low until the last quarter of the century creating supply-induced demand. Brazil’s exports jumped 75 fold between independence in 1822 and 1899. World consumption grew more than 15 fold in the nineteenth century. Consumers were not very price conscious because they were long buffered from recognizing the price. If they drank in cafes, they were unaware of the type of coffee they were drinking. As the price of one sort rose, cafe owners often blended in cheaper substitute grades rather than raise their price. he same seems to have been true for grocers. Rather than risk losing their clientele, they competed on blends, not on price. They also sought to keep prices constant. Price rises were often not passed on to the consumer. Instead, cheaper blends were used or grocers reduced their profit margin. Moreover, as coffee sipping became customary and even habit-forming, it was transformed into a necessity for many. As a result, coffee in the twentieth century became price and income inelastic. Thus we are presented with the irony that the international coffee market at the turn of the twentieth century, one of the world’s largest commodity markets, was relatively price inelastic (within in a reasonably large range) at both the production and the consumption end, though profit-driven commercial and industrial intermediaries were extremely conscious of price. In other words, it was quite imperfect. The Philippine Coffee Company (PCC) says the first coffee tree was introduced in Lipa, Batangas, in 1740 by a Spanish Franciscan monk and soon spread to neighboring towns of Ibaan, Lemery, San Jose, Taal, and Tanauan. â€Å"Batangas owed much of its wealth to the coffee plantations in these areas and Lipa eventually became the coffee capital of the Philippines. We are one of the few countries that produces the four varieties of commercially viable coffee: Arabica, Liberica (Barako), Excelsa, and Robusta. This is attributed to the country’s climate and soil ranging from the lowlands of southern Luzon to the mountain ranges of the Cordillera and Mindanao. â€Å"In 1880, the Philippines was the fourth largest exporter of coffee beans, and when the coffee rust hit Brazil, Africa, and Java, it became the only source of coffee beans worldwide,† PCC says. Our glory days as one of the world’s coffee centers lasted until 1889 when coffee rust hit the Philippine shores, coupled with an insect infestation. Production plunged to 1/6th its original amount. By then, Brazil had regained its position as the world’s leading producer of coffee. A few of the surviving coffee seedlings were transferred from Batangas to Cavite, where they flourished. Our ranking fell because many of the coffee growing areas – like rice fields and salt beds of Las Pinas – were eaten by housing and commercial developments. Less area was allotted to coffee because farmers had shifted to other cash crops. Today’s Coffee is one of the world’s most popular beverages. Some claim it is the most widely consumed liquid in the world aside from water. Coffee’s success as a beverage undoubtedly owes both to the caffeine it harbors and to its sensory pleasure. Coffee lovers come to associate the energizing lift of the caffeine with the richness and aroma of the beverage that delivers it. In our culture, bookstores are also seen as social, intellectual and downright hip. Many bookstores are a place of community where people gather and know one another and talk. The atmosphere in a bookstore typically invites customers to relax and browse the shelves. The concept of a bookstore and coffee house is a good combination that will perfectly gives the bookworm persons and a coffee lover the opportunity to purchase their favorite titles and discover new books while relaxing and enjoying a cup of coffee. The Company is then formed because of the said conceptualized idea and inspiration. COMPANY PROFILE The name of the company will be CTB that stands for COFFEE, TABLE, BOOK. The company’s name was originated from the idea of coffee table book which means a hardcover book that is intended to sit on a coffee table or similar surface in an area where guests sit and are entertained, thus inspiring conversation or alleviating boredom. They tend to be oversized and of heavy construction, since there is no pressing need for portability. The Company CTB will be a combination of piles of books ready for reading and a comfortable cafe that provides place for bookworms to sip coffee and talk with their friends while enjoying their books. It is a modern type of library and a much more public place for reading with a twist for having a cafe in it. It is a very interesting place for a person who wants to meet new people who are also interested in reading, studying and exploring new things and ideas through books. The cafe is really just an addition to the whole idea. It gives new impression to reading. Reading with a cup of coffee or tea with you is a lot better than reading without anything to drink or eat. It’s a higher level of coming into a public place to look for interesting books and a cafe with it. TAGLINE â€Å"Cool your coffee and bring it closer to your heart and mind. † Our tagline represents our business in the most promising way. We decided to state it as cool your coffee, â€Å"cool† meaning call your coffee. Cool because we want it to be mind-teasing and catchy so that customers will notice the line and think. Call your coffee and order it in the CTB shop to relax while reading your favorite novels and bring it closer to your heart and mind. Customers will definitely bring it closer to their heart because the coffee goes to the heart and down to the veins of an individual. The heart and the mind as we all know, is really Like Coffee, Table, Books shop, customers will hold our business close to their hearts and mind, remembering every moment they’ve had with us. Every learning they will earn with what they have read, we are assuring them that they will treasure everything we have shared with them forever. LOCATION The CTB store is located in 1199 unit 5 ground flr. Lemon Square Building, Edsa, Munoz Quezon City with the size of 102. 50 square meters. There are adequate parking space and have reasonably priced per square meter. Rental payments as well additional payment will be stated within the leasing terms including the registration of utilities and amenities. BUSINESS DESCRIPTION VISION To become the foremost Coffee shop in the local and international industry providing the best products and high quality experience. MISSION. To create a unique, comfortable and relaxing environment while enjoying the best hot and cold coffee drinks at an affordable price making it perfect. GOALS AND OBJECTIVES †¢ To increase the frequency of customers’ visitations. †¢ To maintain positive sales growth and increase market share. †¢ Increase brand awareness †¢ To open new branches of stores nationwide every year. †¢ To ensure that equipments used for cold and hot coffee drinks are well-maintained and in good condition. †¢ Develop new products and innovate services yearly. †¢ Develop an increase in sales while achieving a status quo state and decrease in marketing expenses. †¢ To create a cozy and relaxing ambiance. †¢ To give seminars and trainings to employees and retain their Standard Operating Procedures. †¢ To improve promotional activities and advertisements quarterly †¢ To listen and implement feedbacks, suggestions and opinions of customers for the improvement and betterment of the business. COMPANY’S FORM OF ORGANIZATION The company CTB is a sole proprietor type of business because the owner’s primary purpose is to generate profit. A sole proprietorship is a business owned by a single individual. This sole owner is responsible for the entire business and accepts complete responsibility for the business’s liabilities, as well as its income. Unlike other legal structures, the sole proprietorship requires less paperwork and is subject to few business restrictions and regulations. ? Characteristics of Sole Proprietor Management and Control A sole proprietorship is operated by a single individual; thus, the sole proprietor has exclusive management and control of the business. Personal Liability A sole proprietor is personally liable for all obligations and debts of the business. Thus, the business assets and personal assets of the sole proprietor are subject to the risks of the business. Moreover, in California, if the owner is married, the martial community property is at risk and subject to attachment by creditors. If the business is conducted under a name which does not show the owner’s surname or implies the existence of additional owners, the owner is required to file a fictitious name certificate and publish a notice in the newspapers. Capitalization There are no rules governing capitalization of a sole proprietorship. Continuity of Existence The sole proprietorship continues as long as the sole proprietor desires to operate the business and is legally competent. If the business owner is adjudged legally incompetent, becomes incapacitated, or dies, the sole proprietorship ceases to exist. An owner may sell the business as he or she chooses. Taxation A sole proprietor is taxed on business income and may deduct allowable business expenses on his or her personal income tax return. ? Advantages of Sole Proprietor Easy formation: The formation of sole proprietorship business is very easy and simple. No legal formalities are involved for setting up the business excepting a license or permission in certain cases. The entrepreneur with initiative and certain amount of capital can set up such form of business. Direct motivation: The entrepreneur owns all and risks all. The entire profit goes to his pocket. This motivates the proprietor to put his heart and soul in the business to earn more profit. Thus, the direct relationship between effort and reward motivates the entrepreneur to manage the business more efficiently and effectively. Better control: The entrepreneur takes all decisions affecting the business. He chalks out the plan and executes the same. His eyes are on everything and everyone. There is no scope for laxity. This results in better control of the business and ultimately leads to efficiency. Promptness in decision-making: When the decision is to be taken by one person, it is sure to be quick. Thus, the entrepreneur as sole proprietor can arrive at quick decisions concerning the business by which he can take the advantage of any better opportunities. Secrecy: Each and every aspect of the business is looked after by the proprietor and the business secrets are known to him only. He has no legal obligation to publish his accounts. Thus, the maintenance of adequate secrecy leaves no scope to his competitors to be aware of the business secrets. Flexibility in operations: The sole proprietorship business is undertaken on a small scale. If any change is required in business operations, it is easy and quick to bring the changes. Scope for personal touch: There is scope for personal relationship with the entrepreneur and customers in sole proprietorship business. Since the scale of operations is small and the employees work under his direct supervision, the proprietor maintains a harmonious relationship with the employees. Similarly, the proprietor can know the tastes, likes and dislikes of the customers because of his personal rapport with the customers. Inexpensive formation and management: The cost of formation of a sole proprietorship is the minimum because no cost is involved in its formation excepting the license fee in certain cases. The management of the business is also inexpensive as no specialists are normally appointed in various functional areas of the business which is the added advantages. Free from Government control: Sole proprietorship is the least regulated form of business. Regulated laws are almost negligible in its formation, day-to-day operation and dissolution. Easy dissolution: Like that of formation, the dissolution of the sole proprietorship is also very easy. Since the proprietor is the supreme authority and no regulations are applicable for closure of the business he can dissolve his business any time he likes. Socially desirable: New and small entrepreneurs can take up business on small- scale basis. There will be no scope for concentration of wealth in few hands. Sole proprietorship continues its operation in almost each and every area of business activity and caters to the need of the society. Further, it provides ample opportunities for large-scale self-employment for rural and less skilled personnel. Thus, it is socially desirable. PRODUCTS AND SERVICES CTB will offer its customers the best tasting coffee beverages in the area. This will be achieved by using high-quality ingredients and strictly following preparation guidelines. The store layout, menu listings and marketing activities will be focused on maximizing the sales of higher margin espresso drinks. Along with the espresso drinks, brewed coffee, as well as some refreshment beverages will be sold in the coffee shop. CTB will also offer its clients, cookies, muffins, sandwiches and bread. On the other hand, the store offerings will be supplemented by small range of books, magazine and other references that customers can read while drinking coffee. Sandwiches and Breads Muffins Cookies Croissants Donuts PRODUCT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT The Product Research and Development Plan of CTB will provide a clear framework of challenging targets for the consumer over the next years. Strategic view of the needs and opportunities to achieve outcomes that meet the expectations of industry will be the key to the success of this plan. Within the next two years, the company was expected to branch out in different areas of Metro Manila and other provinces. As seasons change, CTB will be offering products that will enhance sales and satisfy its customers’ desires. During summer months, CTB will subsidize lower hot beverage sales with frozen coffee drinks, as well as soft drinks, and other cold beverages. CTB will also have special beverages during holiday seasons. The CTB will carry a variety of quality products that will enable to provide full service delivery to espresso stands and coffee houses that will be offered 1 year after the store was established. The company’s underlying philosophy in selecting products is to choose lines that will bring consistent quality, competitive prices, and product satisfaction to our customers. The coffee shop trend continues because there is a huge demand for it. If you took a road trip across America, you would find coffee shops on just about every corner. While the biggest and most well-known chain is Starbucks, you will also see many mom-and-pop coffee shops or small coffee shop stands. Even gas stations sell coffee to truckers and other travelers on the road. Brazil has by far the most coffee drinkers worldwide, so you will certainly notice that the coffee shop trends are very popular in Brazil. Some people even say that they can smell the aroma of coffee in the air. Coffee with no sugar or added creamers has no calories, and coffee shops have come up with the trend of offering many coffee drinks and treats that are low-fat. Our generation grew up thinking of coffee as a morning pick-me-up and after dinner drink for adults only. The 18-24 year old group has a different view of coffee, thanks to the coffee shop culture. Where older generations gathered at the local soda shop, these kids made the local coffee shop their afternoon hangout. Starbucks and other local chains improved their coffees with flavors, sugar and many creams. This makes their coffee more appealing to the younger crowd. As those kids graduate from high school and move on to college, they’re finding that their love of coffee moves along with them. MARKETING STRATEGY CTB’s marketing strategy will be focused at getting new customers, retaining the existing customers, getting customers to spend more and come back more often. Establishing a loyal customer base is of a paramount importance since such customer core will not only generate most of the sales but also will provide favorable referrals. |Iced Coffee |Hot Chocolate |Chocolate |Sandwiches and Breads | |Latte |Hot Vanilla |Mocha |Muffins | |Frap | |Vanilla |Cookies | |Espresso | |Cookies and Cream |Croissants | | | |Hazelnut |Donuts | †¢ POSITIONING The company will be positioned as a brand providing high quality products at reasonable prices for busy, mobile people whose time is already at a premium, but desires refreshing beverages in a welcoming space that fosters a warm, comfortable and professional environment. †¢ DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL Distribution channels move products and services from businesses to consumers and to other businesses. Given the importance of distribution channels along with the limited resources generally available to small businesses it is particularly important for entrepreneurs to make a careful assessment of their channel alternatives, because an effective channel of distribution strategy is also a major contributing factor for the success of any business entity to be established. Raw materials will be purchased from the suppliers and then delivered to the house of the sole proprietor for storage. The ingredients needed for the production of the final product are made available at the food stall processed into a final product to be served to the customers. The proposed business can offer and acquire sales directly from the market because it has the advantage of having the direct contact with the consumer. †¢ ADVERTISING AND PROMOTIONS We would adopt the following promotion strategies: o Loyalty Cards. o Coffee Feedback Cards o Refills only half the price o Coffee tasting event promotion o Seasonal product promotion o Meal-Focused Promotions o Provide Complementary Services and Products o Print Advertisements in different designated locations o Social Networking (engage fans in twitter, Facebook, Youtube and other photo sharing sites. ) MANAGEMENT PLAN Background and primary responsibilities of the management team In any business, employees have important roles in an organization towards achieving the business’s goal. The management aspect of COFFEE,TABLE,BOOK or CTB is composed of proposed techniques and strategies that will be used for the improvement of its employees. These can be done through proper hiring and training of workers. Every employee have their specific duties and responsibilities in building up a business. There will be a designated work and section for each of them in a period of time. The shuffling of assigned tasks are expected for the employees’ versatility and for them to be an effective, efficient and knowledgeable about their jobs. With proper utilization of its resources, it would be sure that the company will yield its expected return of income. The success of this project lies on the efficient and effective use of human resources in the following functions of management such as planning, organizing, directing and controlling. The top management of the business shall carry out its responsibilities by governing its employees and being responsible in taking in to actions the policies of the company. Also, they will be in charge of monitoring and supervising the trainees and former employees as well. It is very substantial to know the capacity and capability of the people working inside the organization and their manner of interrelationship with other employees as well as with the management. A manager will look after the employees and will assure that every employee are working and striving for the business standards. Overall, every person shall work effectively and contribute skills in order to achieve success of the organization. CTB Coffee,Table,Book [pic] by: Busita, Lorica R. Dionco, Criselda Marie A. Dumencel, Roshell B. Reyes, Jenny Lyn M. Rivera, Juvia Katte M.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Software development and engineering

à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ There are two features which are common to most engineering definitions à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ The solution of practical problems for the benefit of humankind à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ The use of scientific and other formalised knowledge to design and build artefacts within economic constraints Difference between scientists and engineers: à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Scientific reasoning and research is essentially inductive, scientists try to infer general rules or laws from the results of a limited number of observations or experimental results à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ The activities of engineers are quite distinct, their objective is for human benefit rather than explaining the natural world. They make use of scientific results in a deductive way (to verify designs and ideas that are feasible and safe. Development of engineering disciplines QUESTION: How does engineering come to make use of scientific and formalised knowledge? ANSWER: The discipline starts in a state of craft practice: At this stage engineering is carried out by practitioners with little or no formal training and knowledge is acquired during apprenticeship. The second stage is the development of commercial exploitation when pressures arise to make economic use of resources or to increase output. Practice becomes more organised and standard procedures are established. The third stage in development sees the emergence of professional engineering. At this stage engineering is carried out by educated professionals who use formal analysis and scientific theory to understand and verify their designs. Characteristics of engineering Engineering projects tackle clearly defined and quantified problems. Another aspect of modern engineering is the use of systematised knowledge, this knowledge gives the engineer a good understanding both of the problems that he or she is addressing and the materials available for their solution. A science-based knowledge engineer will have considerable knowledge of proven procedures and designs which they can reuse where appropriate. An important aspect of this codified knowledge is the ability to learn from failures. SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT AS ENGINEERING? Development of compiler technology à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ In the 1950s when high-level programming languages were first being designed and implemented, compiler writing was regarded as difficult. à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ The development of the first compiler for FORTRAN, completed in early 1957, required about 18 person-years of effort. à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Compiler technology has progressed dramatically since, that a compiler can now be implemented in anything from 6 person-weeks to a person-year. à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Modern compilers generally produce executable code that is very efficient and it is rare for programmers to need to resort to lower-level languages. à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Compilers are usually extremely reliable being at least as free from errors as most other software on a typical computer. Large-scale development projects Large-scale projects have always been much more prone to problems or failure than smaller developments, such as compiler implementations, due to difficulties of organising and co-ordinating teams, and dealing with clients. But this is not always the case, as seen in these two examples of large and highly successful projects. Example 1: à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ SABRE, an Airline Reservation System developed for American Airlines. à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ The project delivered about one million lines of code and involved around 400 person-years of effort. à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ This success is all the more striking because of the lack of supporting software – there were no database systems available at that time, for example. Example 2: à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ NASA Space Shuttle. à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ The project involved introducing rigorous control of software development, tracking all changes and errors, and constantly refining the development process to ensure that errors are eliminated at the earliest possible stage. Other branches of engineering which have resulted in major disasters: à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ In 1968, Roman point (a high-rise block of flats in London) collapsed after a gas explosion in a top flat. The block was constructed using prefabricated components. à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ In 1980, the Hyatt Regency Hotel in Kansas City, Missouri, a suspended walkway which connected hotel floors collapsed causing deaths of 114 people. The failure was due to a combination of design and construction flaws. QUALITY AND SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT In modern industry and business there is enormous concern to try to produce goods and services of high quality. Definition of Quality – ‘The set of characteristics of a product or service which satisfy a customer's requirements and expectations' American Joseph Juran, one of the early advocates of quality management, defined quality as the fitness for uses. Detailed tracking of error statistics during development has been found by developers such as Microsoft, to be extremely useful even though they may adopt a more informal approach to managing software development (Cusumano and Selby 1997). Development of ideas about quality Total Quality Management (TQM): à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Clearly defining quality in terms of customers' or consumers' requirements à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Concentrating on achieving quality by improving production processes rather than by inspection of end products à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ The clear specification of processes and the use of statistical analyses and other techniques to track down the sources of faults so that the process can be improved à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ The involvement of everyone in quality improvement à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Constantly trying to improve quality by learning from faults and improving processes and designs. The application of quality management to software development Applicable to software development? Each development of a system is a one-off project so it is not obvious that insights derived from improving manufacturing processes are applicable. The argument of Deming and others that quality cannot be achieved by testing alone is borne out by the experience of many software developers. Quality standards – ISO 9000 In order to achieve ISO 9000 certification: à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ It has standards against which to measure all aspects of its development practices à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ It has procedures in place to access performance against these standards à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Both the standards and the assessment methods used are recognised in the industry ISO 9000 has been criticised on its particular criteria for introducing too much paperwork and ignoring the importance of continuous improvement. Capability Maturity Model This model is primarily concerned with the way in which projects are managed and organised, so it proposes five levels of maturity in development practices. 1. Initial Level-Not stable environment for developing software. Success heavily dependent on key project staff. 2. Repeatable Level-Managing software projects based on previous experience. Project progress is tracked and under control. 3. Defined Level-A standard process of software development is used across the organisation. Adapted and tailored appropriately for individual projects. 4. Managed Level-Measurable quality targets are set for projects and the results achieved by all projects are monitored. 5. Optimising Level-Measurements obtained from the monitoring of software development are used as a basis for refining and improving the process used. This level is one of continuous improvement. Chapter 11 – Societies for computing professionals WHAT ARE PROFESSIONAL SOCIETIES? à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Professionals, such as medicine or the law, are distinguished from other occupations by the long period of training and experience which are required in order to qualify as a practitioner. à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Regulated by professional societies à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Societies are run by the members of the profession and represent its interests à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Not under the immediate control of the government or employers Professional institutions can be made in two ways: à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ By stature (by passing a law) à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Royal Charter The Engineering profession (the institution of Civil Engineers, the institution of Mechanical Engineers, the British Computer Society) have similar rights and responsibilities: à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ To advance knowledge in their area à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ To uphold and seek to improve standards of practice (e.g. code of conduct for members) à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ To set educational and training standards in their field (e.g. running professional exams and accrediting certain degree courses) à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ To advise the government on issues within their area of expertise (e.g. BCS on the Computer Misuse Act) THE HISTORY OF ENGINEERING PROFESSIONS à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ When engineering was at the stage of a craft practice, there were few formal mechanisms for the training of new engineers à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Throughout most of the nineteenth century British engineers were firmly convinced of the value of practical experience as the basis of training PROFESSIONAL INSTITUTIONS FOR SOFTWARE ENGINEERS Two professional institutions which have most relevance for computer professionals are the British Computer Society (BCS) and Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE). Engineering Council à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Created by Royal Charter in 1981 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Contains 290000 qualified engineers, including about 200000 Chartered Engineers FEANI FEANI represents the engineering profession at a European level and is made of engineering institutions from 27 countries. It was formed in 1951. PROFESSIONAL MEMBERSHIP Members of professional societies gain the benefit of meeting other professionals in their field as well as access to other resources, such as libraries, seminars and special interest groups. Course accreditation Computer Science degree courses which cover similar materiel to that of the BCS exams are often accredited by the British Computer Society. For a degree course to give full exemption it must: à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Cover the underlying theory and mathematics appropriate to computing à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Have an emphasis on design à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Promote understanding of ideas of quality à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Cover systems development approaches à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Cover ethical, legal, social and professional issues à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Include a substantial student project which involves the implementation of an application or tool using an engineering-based approach. Registration with the Engineering Council The Engineering Council maintains a register of qualified engineers. à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ EA1 – introduction to the fabrication and use of materials à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ EA2 – application of engineering principlines à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ EA3 – a thorough and structured introduction to industry, involving practical assignments à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ EA4 – preparation for the post with responsibility EA1 and EA2 = accredited in engineering degree EA3 and EA4 = period of appropriate work Professional development BCS has developed the Industry Structure Model to classify different roles and responsibilities which computing professionals must have. It identifies some 200 professional functions ranging from programming to management. The purpose of the model is to help individuals and organisations to plan training and career development by identifying current gaps in knowledge. BCS runs two development schemes: à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Professional Development scheme – computing professionals have properly planned and verified training Continuing Professional Development – those who have achieved qualification but who need to broaden their knowledge.

Friday, September 13, 2019

Man's Search for meaning by Viktor Frankl Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Man's Search for meaning by Viktor Frankl - Essay Example The experience of Viktor in the Nazi camp taught him that the main drive in life is hope. Life is driven mainly by hope and not pleasure. Depression in individuals is a way of telling the world that something is wrong and needs to change (Viktor E Frankl 20). Depression makes individuals become aware of their mortality and it will change their general perspective towards life. There are different challenges in life and the manner that different individuals handle it gives a deep meaning to life. Viktor argued that individuals have to choose their own attitude in any circumstance and choose the right way. Viktor observed that human beings combine a certain modesty and tolerance of individual weakness. The combination of modesty and tolerance comes with a tendency of strict judgement of morals (Viktor E Frankl 29). Viktor illustrates that life has responsibilities and individuals have to find the right answer to the problems of life. The importance of life is to find the main purpose that makes it worth living. He illustrates that the possibilities of acquiring the meaning of life through individual suffering is

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Environmental Economics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Environmental Economics - Essay Example It is the study of environmental policies and to see how well the businesses abide by these when striving for profits. The major and common costs that these companies levy are air pollution, noise pollution, toxic and solid waste in water harming the water quality and global warming. Since about a decade, these environmental hazards have kept increasing extremely rapidly and rampantly. Thus, there is a now a sense of urgency to get rid of these problems completely. However, this has become very difficult; millions of policies have been formulated by the government and various organizations, but is they still do not produce the desirable results. One another major issue that has been faced since many years is the 'carbon emission'. Coal is one of the biggest energy resource currently used; it accounts for 50% of the electricity produced in the United States. Today, fossil fuels are a source of 80% of the world's energy needs; coal accounts for 25%, natural gas 21%, petroleum oil 34%, nuclear 6.5%, hydro power 2.2%, and biomass and waste 11%. The resources that are environmental friendly such as geothermal, solar and wind are responsible for only a measly 0.4% of the overall demand in the world. The US alone produces 1.5 billion tons of carbon dioxide from coal-burning power plants. Also, it produces great amounts of nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, mercury emissions and other combustible gases when coal is burned. This makes it very clear how harmful the usage of coal is for our environment. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology conducted a study and made a report called 'The Future Coal' in which they examined all developing countries that try to alleviate global warming and their usage of coal. This report discusses the hazards of global warming and how countries should restrict the emission of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. It also focuses on how coal remains and important and indispensable part of every country's production, how there is a need to control the carbon emissions and then how these countries need to take care of emissions yet make use of coal to meet urgent and large energy needs. However, at the same time, this reports deals with future technologies that can be used in place of coal to meet the goal of reduced coal emissions. The main reason why businesses and producers go for coal is that it is inexpensive and abundant. Coal can be used at only a cheap cost of $1 - $2 for each MMBtu compared to $6- $12 for gas and oil (The Future Coal, 2007). Also, coal mines are evenly distributed and spread and can be found everywhere, for example United States, China, India etc; except for only a few regions such as Persian Gulf, where instead are huge oil and gas reserves. The non-carbon emitting resources, mainly nuclear and renewable, are not available everywhere; thus, these areas still rely on coal despite all the policies and awareness of carbon hazards. The positive point of following this report is that it does not advocate certain policies that improve the environment; it diverts all its findings towards the technologies that can be used if these policies are actually followed by people. It is only natural to ask for an alternative if a certain act is prohibited; and that is exactly what The Future Coal is focusing on. This study focuses on technologies that